نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان .

2 دانشیار، مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان.

3 استادیار، مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان.

10.22068/jstc.2023.1999336.1831

چکیده

با توسعه و گسترش چاپ سه‌بعدی و ارتقاء به چاپ چهاربعدی، این امکان برای سازه‌های چاپ سه‌بعدی معمول فراهم شده است که در طول زمان با اعمال یک یا چند محرک به‌طور هم‌زمان آن‌ها را به ساختاری پویا تبدیل کنند. چاپ چهاربعدی قادر است یک هندسه ساده را به یک هندسه پیچیده تبدیل کند بدون اینکه نیازی به چاپ هندسه پیچیده از ابتدا باشد. همچنین چاپ چهاربعدی هزینه‌های تولید را کاهش، مواد کمتری را هدر و سرعت تولید را افزایش می‌دهد و ویژگی‌هایی مانند خود مونتاژی، خودسازگاری و خود ترمیمی را به ویژگی‌های مرتبط با سازه‌های چاپ سه‌بعدی اضافه می‌کند. در این مطالعه، ابتدا انواع مواد هوشمند و سازوکار‌های فعال‌سازی مورد استفاده در چاپ چهاربعدی مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. سپس با تمرکز بر پلیمر‌ها و کامپوزیت‌های پلیمری، خواص و ویژگی‌های چاپ چهاربعدی تشریح می‌شود. در ادامه انواع روش‌های ساخت افزودنی مورد استفاده در چاپ چهاربعدی پلیمرها شرح داده می‌شود و در یک بخش جداگانه، تأثیر پارامترهای فرآیندی چاپ با استفاده از یک چاپگر FDM بر پاسخ مواد مورد استفاده به محرک اعمال شده مورد بحث قرار می‌گیرد. علاوه بر این، گسترش چاپ چهاربعدی در صنایع مختلف مانند پزشکی، هوافضا، حسگرها، رباتیک و سایر زمینه‌های کاربردی دیگر که چاپ چهاربعدی در آن‌ها وارد شده مورد بحث قرار گرفت و در پایان این پژوهش، چالش‌های موجود و فرصت‌های آتی توضیح داده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A review on 4D printing of polymers and polymer composites

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aref Ansaripour 1
  • Mohammad Heidari-Rarani 2
  • Rasoul Mahshid 3

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

With the development and expansion of 3D printing and upgrading to 4D printing, it became possible for static 3D printed structures to turn them into a dynamic structure over time by applying one or more stimuli simultaneously. 4D printing was able to transform a simple geometry into a complex geometry without the need for printing the entire geometry from the beginning. Also, 4D printing reduced production costs, wasted fewer materials, increased production speed, and added features such as self-assembly, self-compatibility, and self-healing to the features related to 3D printed structures. In this study, first, different types of smart materials (such as shape memory polymers, shape memory alloys, hydrogels, etc.) and activation mechanisms (such as water, heat, pH, etc.) used in 4D printing were evaluated. Then, focusing on polymers and polymer composites, the properties and characteristics of 4D printing were described. In the following, the types of 3D printing methods utilized in the 4D printing of polymers were explained, and in a separate section, the effect of the printing process parameters using an FDM printer on the response of the materials used to the applied stimulus is discussed. Furthermore, the expansion of 4D printing in various industries such as medicine, aerospace, sensors, robotics, and other fields of application in which 4D printing entered was discussed and at the end of this study, the existing challenges and future opportunities were profoundly discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 4D printing
  • Shape memory polymers
  • Composites
  • Stimulus
  • Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
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