نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس،تهران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران.

3 دانشیار ، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهرا ن.

4 استاد، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهرا ن

10.22068/jstc.2021.141438.1693

چکیده

فناوری چاپ سه‌بعدی یکی از روش‌های نوین ساخت است که می‌تواند برای ساخت ساختارهای تاشونده مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. ساختارهای تاشو به صورت مسطح ساخته شده و با اعمال محرک به شکل‌های سه‌بعدی تغییرشکل می‌یابند. فرایند لایه‌نشانی مذاب یکی از مرسوم‌ترین و ارزان‌ترین فرایندهای چاپ سه‌بعدیست که در این پژوهش موثرترین پارامترهای این فرایند مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. به این منظور ابتدا با طراحی آزمایش به روش تاگوچی مقادیر بهینه پارامترهای چاپ شامل الگوی چاپ، ضخامت هر لایه، درصد پر شدن و دمای نازل برای رسیدن به حداکثر تغییرشکل (انحنا) مشخص شدند. سپس با تنظیم این پارامترها، تاثیر پارامتر سرعت چاپ و ضخامت کل بر انحنا بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش سرعت چاپ انحنا افزایش و با افزایش ضخامت کل انحنا کاهش می‌یابد. همچنین با فرض اینکه انحنا تنها ناشی از تغییرات حرارتی است روابط با استفاده از نظریه کلاسیک لایه‌ای استخراج و با نتایج تجربی مقایسه شد. این مقایسه نشان داد که تنها تغییرات حرارتی عامل ایجاد انحنا نیست و به نظر می‌رسد عوامل دیگری مانند تنش‌های پسماند و خاصیت حافظه‌شکلی دخیل باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of 3D printing parameters on shape-shifting of flat sturctures to Three-Dimensional Shapes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Jamshidi 1
  • Iman Salimi Nezhad 2
  • Mohammad Golzar 3
  • Amir Hossein Behravesh 4

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

3D printing technology is one of the new manufacturing methods that can be used to build folding structures. Folding structures are made flat and deformed into three-dimensional shapes by an actuator. FDM process is one of the most common and cheap 3D printing processes that in this study, the most effective parameters of this process were investigated. For this purpose, the optimal values of printing parameters including printing pattern, thickness of each layer, filling percentage and nozzle temperature to achieve maximum deformation (curvature) were determined by Taguchi experiment design. Then, by adjusting these parameters, the effect of printing speed and total thickness on curvature was investigated. The results showed that with increasing printing speed, the curvature increases and with increasing the total thickness, the curvature decreases. Also, assuming that the curvature is only due to thermal changes, the relationships were extracted using the classical layer theory and compared with the experimental results. This comparison showed that thermal changes alone are not the only cause of curvature and other factors such as residual stresses and shape memory seem to be involved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Filling Pattern
  • 3D printing
  • shape-shifting
  • CLT
  • Heat Activation
[1] Na, J.H., et al., “Programming reversibly self‐folding origami with micropatterned photo‐crosslinkable polymer trilayers,” Advanced Materials journal, Vol. 1, No. 27,  pp. 79-85, 2015.
[2] Gracias, D.H., et al., “Forming electrical networks in three dimensions by self-assembly,” science journal, Vol. 289, No. 5482,  pp. 1170-1172, 2000.
[3] Randall, C.L., Gultepe, E., and Gracias, D.H., “Self-folding devices and materials for biomedical applications,” Trends in biotechnology journal, Vol. 3, No. 30,  pp. 138-146, 2012.
[4] Xia, F., et al., “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,”. Nature Photonics journal, Vol. 8, No. 12,  pp. 899-914, 2014. 
[5] Hu, J., et al., “Recent advances in shape–memory polymers: Structure, mechanism, functionality, modeling and applications,” Progress in Polymer Science journal, Vol. 37, No. 12,  pp. 1720-1763, 2012.
[6] Hopkinson, N., Hague, R. and Dickens, P., “Rapid manufacturing: an industrial revolution for the digital age,” John Wiley & Sons, pp. 356-357,  2006.
[7] Allen, R.J. and Trask, R.S., “An experimental demonstration of effective Curved Layer Fused Filament Fabrication utilising a parallel deposition robot,” Additive Manufacturing journal, Vol. 8, pp. 78-87, 2015.
[8] Bellehumeur, C., et al., “Modeling of bond formation between polymer filaments in the fused deposition modeling process,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 6, No. 2,  pp. 170-178, 2015.
[9] Lee, A.Y., An, J. and Chua, C.K., “Two-way 4D printing: a review on the reversibility of 3D-printed shape memory materials”. Engineering journal, Vol. 3, No. 5,  pp. 663-674, 2017.
[10] Bodaghi, M., Damanpack, A. and Liao,W., “Adaptive metamaterials by functionally graded 4D printing,” Materials & Design journal, Vol. 135,  pp. 26-36, 2017.
[11] Ionov, L., Hydrogel-based actuators: possibilities and limitations. Materials Today, 17(10): p. 494-503, 2014.
[12] Jeon, S.-J., Hauser, A.W. and Hayward, R.C., “Shape-morphing materials from stimuli-responsive hydrogel hybrids,” Accounts of chemical research journal, Vol. 5, No. 2,  pp. 161-169, 2017.
[13] Woltman, S.J., Jay, G.D. and Crawford, G.P., “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nature materials journal, Vol. 6, No. 12,  pp. 929-938, 2007.
[14] Ohm, C., Brehmer, M., and Zentel, R., “Liquid crystalline elastomers as actuators and sensors,” journal of Advanced Materials, Vol. 22, No. 31,  pp. 3366-3387, 2010.
[15] Liu, Y., et al., “Self-folding of polymer sheets using local light absorption,” Soft matter journal, Vol. 8, No. 6,  pp. 1764-1769, 2012.
[16] Mao, Y., et al., “Sequential self-folding structures by 3D printed digital shape memory polymers,” Scientific reports journal, pp. 13616-13628, 2015.
[17] Janbaz, S., Hedayati, R. and Zadpoor, A., “Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter: from self-rolling/self-twisting materials to self-folding origami,” Materials Horizons journal, Vol. 3, No. 6,  pp. 536-547, 2016.
[18] Wu, J., et al., “Multi-shape active composites by 3D printing of digital shape memory polymers,” Scientific reports journal, pp. 24224-24238, 2016.
[19] van Manen, T., Janbaz, S. and Zadpoor, A.A., “Programming 2D/3D shape-shifting with hobbyist 3D printers,” Materials Horizons journal, Vol. 4, No. 6,  pp. 1064-1069, 2017. 
[20] Raviv, D., et al., “Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations,” Scientific reports journal, 2014. 4: p. 7422.  Vol. 4,  pp. 7422-7429, 2014.
[21] Felton, S.M., et al., “Self-folding with shape memory composites,” journal of  Soft Matter, Vol. 9, No. 32,  pp. 7688-7694, 2013.
[22] Tolley, M.T., et al., “Self-folding origami: shape memory composites activated by uniform heating,” Smart Materials and Structures journal, 2014. 23(9): p. 094006.   Vol. 23, No. 9, 2014.
[23] Yang, W.p. and Tarng, Y., “Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method,” Journal of materials processing technology, Vol. 84, No. 3,  pp. 122-129, 1998.
[24] ASTM D 638 -02a, “Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics,” 2003.