نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مواد کامپوزیتی چندلایه با توجه به استحکام و سفتی بالا نسبت به وزن، ‌کاربرد بسیار وسیعی در صنایع مختلف از جمله هوافضا دارند. لذا تشخیص مکانیزم‌های خرابی این مواد اهمیت بسیار زیادی در پیش‌بینی رفتار مکانیکی آن‌ها دارد. یکی از اصلی‌ترین مود‌های خرابی اصلی این مواد، جدایی بین لایه‌ای است که در بین لایه‌های کامپوزیتی و در نقاط اتصال قطعات مختلف به یکدیگر مشاهده می‌شود. در این پژوهش به‌منظور پیش‌بینی رشد آسیب در اتصالات چسبی بال کامپوزیتی، مدل ناحیه چسبنده به‌کار گرفته می‌شود. مزیت این روش، امکان مدل‌سازی رشد جدایی بین لایه‌ای بدون نیاز به‌وجود ترک اولیه و المان‌بندی مجدد می‌باشد. به‌علاوه به‌منظور پیش‌بینی آسیب احتمالی در لایه‌های کامپوزیتی، مدل آسیب پیش‌رونده لادوز در نرم افزار آباکوس با استفاده از کد نوشته شده توسط کاربر (Umat) پیاده‌سازی شده و میزان اهمیت در نظر گرفتن تخریب درون لایه‌ای در لایه‌های کامپوزیتی بر تسریع شروع تخریب و رشد آن در اتصال چسبی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از اعتبارسنجی نشان از دقت مناسب روش به‌کار گرفته شده، دارد. به‌علاوه نتایج تحلیل نشان داد، استفاده از المان‌های سه‌بعدی به‌مراتب دقت بهتری در تشخیص شروع تخریب و رشد آن نسبت به مدل‌های دوبعدی دارد. در ادامه اثرات مشخصات اتصال چسبی مثل ضخامت و کیفیت اتصال در استحکام سازه بال مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Failure analysis of composite wing adhesive joints using 3D cohesive interface element

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Heidari 1
  • Davood Salimi-Majd 1
  • Bijan Mohammadi 2

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Due to high strength and stiffness in comparison with their weights, laminated composite materials are widely used in many structures such as aerospace. Therefore to predict their mechanical response, the understanding of their failure mechanisms is very important. The delamination between composite layers and adhesive joints is one of the main damage modes of these materials. In this research, the cohesive zone model is used to predict the damage evaluation of composite wing adhesive joints. The advantage of this method is the modeling of delamination growth without any requirements to the presence of initial crack and remeshing.  Moreover to predict the probable damage in composite layers the Ladeveze progressive damage model has been implemented in Abaqus using user defined code (Umat) and also the importance of considering the intralaminar failure on the acceleration in damage initiation and propagation in adhesively bonded joints have been evaluated. The results verify the proper accuracy of implemented method. Furthermore, the results of solid cohesive elements showed to be more accurate in predicting damage initiation and evaluation in comparison to shell elements. Finally effects of adhesive properties such as thickness and quality of bonding in load capability of wing structure have been investigated.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cohesive zone model
  • Continuum damage mechanics
  • Ladeveze damage theory
  • Skin/Stringer

[1]    Barenblatt, G. I., “The Formation of equilibrium cracks during brittle fracture, general ideas and hypothesis. Axisymmetrical cracks,” Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, (PMM), Vol. 23, pp. 622–636, 1959.

[2]    Dugdale, D. S., “Yielding of steel sheets containing slits,” Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 8, pp. 100–104, 1960.

[3]    Xu, X. P. and Needleman, A., "Void Nucleation by Inclusion Debonding in a Crystal Matrix". Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, pp-111-132, 1993.

[4]    Tvergaard, V. and Hutchinson, J. W., "The Relation Between Crack Growth Resistance and Fracture Process Parameters in Elastic–Plastic Solids". J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp-1377–97, 1992.

[5]    Cvitkovich, M. K., Krueger, R., O'Brien, T. K., and Minguet, P. J., “Debonding In composite skin/stringer configuration under multi-axial loading” Proceedings of the 13th Annual Technical Conference on Composite Materials, 1998.

[6]    Camanho, P. P. Davila, C. G. and Pinho, S. T., "Fracture analysis of composite co-cured structural joints using decohesion elements", Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 27, pp. 745–757, 2003.

[7]    Krueger, R. Minguet, P. J. and O'Brien, T. K., "A method for calculating strain energy release rates in preliminary design of composite skin/stringer debounding under multi-axial loading", Composite Structures: Theory and Practice, ASTM STP 1383, pp. 105-128, 2000.

[8]    Krueger, R. and Minguet, P. J., "Analysis of composite skin–stiffener debound specimens using a shell/3D modeling technique", Composite Structures, Vol. 81, pp. 41–59, 2007.

[9]    Hosseini-Toudeshky, H. Mohammadi, B. Hamidi, B. and Ovesy, H. R., "Analysis of composite skin/stiffener debounding and failure under uniaxial loading", Composite Structures, Vol. 75, pp. 428–436, 2006.

[10]  Wagner, W. and Balzani, C., "Simulation of delamination in stringer stiffened fiber-reinforced composite shells", Computers and Structures, Vol. 86, pp. 930–939, 2008.

[11]  Bertolini, J. Castanié, B. Barrau, J. J. and Navarro, J. P., "Multi-level experimental and numerical analysis of composite stiffener debonding. Part 1: Non-specific specimen level", Composite Structures, Vol. 90, pp. 381–391, 2009.

[12]Mohammadi, B. Salimi-Majd, D. and Ali-Bakhshi, M. H., " Analysis of composite skin/stringer debonding and failure under static loading using cohesive zone model", In Persian, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 17-25, 2015.

[13] Shokrieh, M. M. Salamat-Talab, M. and Heidari-Rarani, M., " Numerical analysis of mode I delamination growth in laminated DCB specimens using cohesive zone models", In Persian, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 38-48, 2013.

[14] Ghaznavi, A. Khalili, S. M. R. and Ghaznavi, A., "Effect of joint geometry on the behavior and failure modes of sandwich t-joints under transverse static loads", In Persian, Journal of Modeling in Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 36, pp. 85-101, 2014.

[15] Ahmadi Najabadi, M. Sedighi, M. Salehi, M. Hossini and Toudeshky, H., Analysis and detection of failure in aluminium/E-glass prepreg interface with acoustic emission", In Persian, Jornal of Science and Technology of Composites, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 13-22, 2014.

[16] Mohammadi, B. and Salimi-Majd, D., "Investigation of delamination and damage due to free edge effects in composite laminates using cohesive interface elements". Eng Solid Mech, Vol. 2, pp. 101–118, 2014.

[17] Salimi-Majd, D. Azimzadeh, V. and Mohammadi, B., "Loading analysis of composite wind turbine blade for fatigue life prediction of adhesively bonded root joint". Appl Compos Mater, Accepted, 2015.

[18] Ladeveze, P. and Le Dantec, E., "Damage modelling of the elementary ply for laminated composites", Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 43, pp. 257-267, 1992.

[19] Daniel, M., “Engineering Mechanics  of Composite Materials", 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

[20] O’Higgins, R. M. McCarthy, C. T. and McCarthy, M. A., "Identification of damage and plasticity parameters for continuum damage mechanics modeling of carbon and glass-reinforced composite materials", Strain, Vol. 47, pp. 105–115, 2011.

[21] Dávila, C. G. Camanho, P. P. and Moura, M. F., “Progressive damage analyses of skin/stringer debonding”, Proceedings Of American Society of Composites Annual Technical Conference, 16th Technical Conference, Blacksburg, 2001.

[22] Huchette, C. Vandellos, T. and Laurin, F., "Influence of intralaminar damage on the delamination crack evolution", in: Riccio, A. (Eds.), Damage growth in aerospace composites, Springer Aerospace Technology, pp. 107-140, 2015.

[23]  Herakovich, C. T., ”Mechanics of Fibrous Composites”, J. Wiley & Sons, 1998.

[24] Laurin, F. Carrere, N. and Maire, J. F., "Strength analysis methods for high stress gradient parts in composite structures ensuring design office requirements", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 225, No. 3, pp. 291-301, 2011.