نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد ، مهندسی مکانیک ، دانشگاه گیلان ، رشت

2 استاد ، مهندسی مکانیک ، دانشگاه گیلان ، رشت.

3 دانشیار، مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت.

4 دکتری تخصصی، مهندسی مکانیک ، دانشگا ه کیل ، کیل

10.22068/jstc.2020.133844.1675

چکیده

بیشتر مواد طبیعی کامپوزیت‌هایی هستند که می‌توانند دامنه گسترده‌ای از خواص مواد مانند مدول الاستیک را نشان دهند.کیوتیکل حشرات یکی از این مواد طبیعی است. نوع گرادیان کیوتیکل در قسمت‌های مختلف بدن حشرات به طرز چشمگیری متفاوت است. به دلیل ابعاد کوچک نمونه‌های کیوتیکل، انجام آزمایش‌های تجربی، بسیار چالش برانگیز، پر هزینه و وقت گیر است. شناخت عملکرد ساختار‌های کیوتیکلی و خصوصیات درجه‌بندی شده‌ی آن‌ها می‌تواند به طراحی و توسعه‌ی مواد مهندسی با خواص پیشرفته کمک کند. در این مقاله‌ از روش اجزای محدود برای بررسی عملکرد کیوتیکل موجود در پوسته بال سنجاقک استفاده شده‌است. نخست توزیع مواد روی پوسته‌ی بال با استفاده از تصاویر بدست‌آمده توسط میکروسکوپ اسکن لیزری روبشی(CLSM) بررسی می‌شود. سپس، برای ارزیابی مقادیر تنش و کرنش تحت جابه‌جایی، روابط مختلف سفتی برروی یک مدل هندسی از تیر یکسر گیردار، که نمایانگر پوسته است، اعمال میشود. مقایسه‌ی نتایج بدست‌آمده از تجزیه و تحلیل روابط مختلف سفتی نشان داد رابطه‌ی سهموی درجه دو به عنوان توزیع مناسب‌تر برای سفتی، از لحاظ دارا بودن کمترین تنش و کرنش در این ساختار، نسبت به سایر روابط سفتی معرفی می‌گردد. این پژوهش بستری برای تحقیقات بیشتر میان رشته‌ای در این زمینه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Numerical investigation of the material gradient using different stiffness functions by consideration of the graded stiffness of the dragonfly wing membrane

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afsaneh Vahdani 1
  • Abolfazl Darvizeh 2
  • Majid Alitavoli 3
  • Hamed Rajabi 4

1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

4 Institute of Zoology, Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany .

چکیده [English]

Most natural materials are composites that can exhibit a wide range of material properties, such as the elastic modulus. Insect cuticle is one of these natural materials. The material gradient of the cuticle drastically varies in different insect body parts. Considering the small size of cuticular samples, conducting experimental tests is very challenging, expensive, and time-consuming. Understanding how cuticular structures work and their graded properties can help to design and develop engineering materials with enhanced properties. In this paper, the finite element (FE) method is used to investigate the function of the cuticle in the membrane of dragonfly wings. In this regard, first, the distribution of materials on the wing membrane is investigated using images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Then, in order to estimate the stress and strain values subjected to displacement, multiple stiffness functions are applied for a geometric model of a cantilever beam, which represents the membrane. The results show that the presence of a graded stiffness has a significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the cantilever beam. A comparison of the results obtained from the analysis of different stiffness functions showed that The quadratic function is introduced as a more suitable distribution for stiffness, in terms of having the least stress and strain in this structure, compared to other stiffness functions. This study can provide a proper and applied platform for further interdisciplinary research in this area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Graded materials
  • finite element method
  • biological structures
  • Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Biomechanics
[1] Wegst, U. G. Ashby, M. F., “The Mechanical Efficiency of Natural Materials,” Philosophical Magazine. Vol. 84, No. 21, pp. 2167-86, 2004.
[2] Vincent, J. F. Wegst, U. G., “Design and Mechanical Properties of Insect Cuticle,”Arthropod structure & development. Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 187-99, 2004.
[3] Barbakadze, N. Enders, S. Gorb, S. Arzt, E., “Local Mechanical Properties of the Head Articulation Cuticle in the Beetle Pachnoda Marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae),” Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 209, No. 4, pp. 722-30, 2006.
[4] Burrows, M. Shaw, S. R. Sutton, G. P., “Resilin and Chitinous Cuticle form a Composite Structure for Energy Storage in Jumping by Froghopper Insects,” BMC biology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 41, 2008.
[5] Dai, Z. Yang, Z., “Macro-/Micro-Structures of Elytra, Mechanical Properties of the Biomaterial and the Coupling Strength Between Elytra in Beetles,” Journal of Bionic Engineering. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 6-12, 2010.
[6] Clark, A. J. Triblehorn, J. D., “Mechanical Properties of the Cuticles of Three Cockroach Species that Differ in Their Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior,” PeerJ, Vol. 2, pp. e501, 2014.
[7] Dirks, J. H. Taylor, D., “Fracture Toughness of Locust Cuticle,” Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 215, No. 9, pp. 1502-8, 2012.
[8] Appel, E. Heepe, L. Lin, C. P. Gorb, S. N., “Ultrastructure of Dragonfly Wing Veins: Composite Structure of Fibrous Material Supplemented by Resilin,” Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 227, No. 4, pp. 561-82, 2015.
[9] Darvizeh, A. Rajabi, H. Nejad, S. F.Khaheshi, A. Haghdoust, P., “Biomechanical Properties of Hen’s Eggshell: Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 456-9, 2013.
[10] Rajabi, H. Ghoroubi, N. Darvizeh, A. Appel, E. Gorb, S. N., “Effects of Multiple Vein Microjoints on the Mechanical Behaviour of Dragonfly Wings: Numerical Modelling,”  Royal Society open science, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 150610, 2016.
[11] Miyamoto, Y., “The Applications of Functionally Graded Materials in Japan,” Materials Technology, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 230-6, 1996.
[12] Muslim, N. B. Hamzah, A. F. Al-kawaz, A. E., “Study of Mechanical Properties of Wollastonite Filled Epoxy Functionally Graded Composite,” Int. J. Mech. Eng. Technol, Vol. 9, pp. 669-77, 2018.
[13] Rezvanitavakol, M., “A Review of the Theory and Approximation of Mechanical Properties of FGM Functional Materials by Introducing These Materials in Nature and its Applications in Industry” In Persian, Journal of Science and Engineering Elites, Vol 2, No. 1, 2538-58.
[14] Rajabi, H. Jafarpour, M. Darvizeh, A. Dirks, J. H, Gorb, S. N., “Stiffness Distribution in Insect Cuticle: a Continuous or a Discontinuous Profile?,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface. Vol. 14, No. 132, pp. 20170310, 2017.
[15] Schmitt, M. Büscher, T. H. Gorb, S. N. Rajabi, H., “How Does a Slender Tibia Resist Buckling? Effect of Material, Structural and Geometric Characteristics on Buckling Behaviour of the Hindleg Tibia in Stick Insect Postembryonic Development,” Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 221, No. 4, 2018.
[16] Eshghi, S. H. Jafarpour, M. Darvizeh, A. Gorb, S.N. Rajabi, H., “A Simple, High-Resolution, Non-Destructive Method for Determining the Spatial Gradient of the Elastic Modulus of Insect Cuticle,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 15, No. 145, pp. 20180312, 2018.
[17] Rajabi, H. Dirks, J. H. Gorb, S. N., “Insect Wing Damage: Causes, Consequences and Compensatory Mechanisms,” Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 223, No. 9, 2020.