نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، مهندسی کامپوزیت، دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر، تهران

2 کارشناسی ارشد، مهندسی کامپوزیت، دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر، تهران

3 دانشیار، مهندسی کامپوزیت، دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر، تهران

چکیده

درجه پخت پیش‌آغشته، یکی از مهم‌ترین مشخصه‌های آن به‌شمار می‌رود، به‌طوری‌که با تغییر در آن مشخصه‌های دیگر پیش‌آغشته مانند چسبناکی و جریان‌پذیری نیز تغییر می‌کند. برای کنترل و پیش‌بینی درجه پخت باید ارتباط کمی آن با پارامترهای فرآیندی مانند سرعت خط تولید پیش‌آغشته، دمای آون و میزان رزین تعیین شود. در این مقاله معادله انتقال حرارت حاکم بر سیستم پخت پیش‌آغشته اپوکسی- شیشه هم‌زمان با معادله سرعت پخت رزین اپوکسی، به‌روش عددی و به‌کمک برنامه رایانه‌ای نوشته شده در محیط نرم افزار میپل حل شد. همچنین پارامترهای سینتیک پخت رزین با استفاده از اطلاعات آزمون گرماسنجی پویشی تفاضلی هم‌دما به‌دست آمده است. نتایج به‌دست آمده نشان می‌دهد که هر چه میزان رزین پیش‌آغشته بیشتر باشد، در ابتدا دما و درجه پخت کمتر خواهد بود اما با آزاد شدن گرمای واکنش پخت، سرعت تغییرات دما و درجه پخت افزایش می‌یابد. همچنین نوع الیاف نیز بر درجه پخت پیش‌آغشته اثر گذار است به‌طوری‌که هر چه الیاف مورد استفاده چگالی و ظرفیت گرمایی ویژه بالاتری داشته باشد، دما و درجه پخت پیش‌آغشته کمتر خواهد بود. همان‌طور که انتظار می رفت با افزایش دمای آون، درجه حرارت پیش‌آغشته افزایش یافته و به‌طبع آن درجه پخت نیز افزایش خواهد یافت، درحالی‌که با افزایش سرعت خط تولید پیش‌آغشته، دما و درجه پخت پیش‌آغشته کاهش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling of Degree of Cure in Epoxy-glass Prepreg

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrzad Mortezaei 1
  • Hamidreza Khalafi 2
  • Iraj Amiri Amraei 3

1 Department of Composite Engineering. Maleke Ashtar Universtity

2 Department of Composite Engineering. Maleke Ashtar Universtity

3 Department of Composite Engineering. Maleke Ashtar Universtity

چکیده [English]

Degree of cure is one of the most important properties of prepregs, so that the change in degree of cure will cause the changing the of other properties such as, mechanical properties, tack and resin flow. In order to predict and monitor degree of cure, the quantitative relation with processing parameters such as line speed, oven temperature and resin content have to be determined. In this paper, the heat transfer equation governing epoxy-glass prepreg curing systems, together with the equation for the rate of epoxy resin curing is solved using numerical methods and computer programs written in the MAPLE software. The kinetic parameters of the curing reaction of epoxy resin are also evaluated by using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry data. According to results, initially, the temperature and the degree of cure will be reduced by increasing the amount of resin. However, releasing of the heat of curing increases both the temperature variation rate and the degree of curing. Moreover, the fiber types affect the degree of curing; the higher the density and specific heat capacity of the fibers, the less the temperature and degree of curing. Finally, increasing the oven temperature raised the temperature and degree of cure, as expected. On the other hand, increasing the line speed decreased the temperature and the degree of cure.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Prepreg
  • Modeling
  • Degree of Cure
  • Energy Equation
  • Numerical solution techniques

[1]  

Hoseini, S. A. V., Pol, M. H., “Investigation of the tensile and the flexural  properties of the glass/epoxy composites reinforced with nanoclay  particles”, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 7, pp. 103-108, 2014. (In Persian)

[2]

Beheshty, M. H. and Heidary, A.R. “Science and Technology of Prepregs”, Iran Journal Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 34-47, 1991. (In Persian)

[3]

Mazumdar, S. K., “Composites manufacturing : materials, product, and process engineering”, pp. 58-59, USA :CRC Press LLC, 2000.

[4]

Vafayan, M. Beheshty, M. H. Ghoreishy, M. H. R. Abedini, H., “Advanced  integral isoconversional analysis for evaluating and predicting the kinetic parameters of the curing reaction of epoxy prepreg”, Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 557, pp. 37-43, 2013.

[5]

Hayes, B. S. Seferis, J. C., “Simulation Engineering of Polymeric Prepreg Composite Systems”, PhD Thesis, University of Washington, Washington, 1997.

[6]

prepreg, http://www.hexcel.com, available in March 2005

[7]

Shaghaghi, S. Beheshty, M. H. Rahimi, H., “Preparation and Rheological Characterization of Phenolic/Glass Prepregs”, Iran Polymer Journal, Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 969-977, 2011.

[8]

Shaghaghi, S. Beheshty, M. H. Rahimi, H. “Preparation of phenolic-glass prepregs andinvestigation the effect of phenolic resin type on their properties”, MSc Thesis, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, 2010. (In Persian)

[9]

Jubslip, C. Punson, K. Takeichi, T. Rimdusit, S., “Curing Kinetics of Benzoxazine- Epoxy Copolymer Investigated by non-Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 95, pp. 918-924, 2010.

[10]

Sun, L. Pang, S. Sterling, A. M. Negulescu, I. I. Stubblefield, M. A., “Dynamic Modeling of Curing Process of Epoxy Prepreg”, Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 86, pp. 1911-1923, 2002.

[11]

Hayaty, M. Beheshty, M. H. Esfandeh, M., “Cure Kinetics of a Glass/Epoxy Prepreg by Dynamic Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 120, pp. 62-69, 2011.

[12]

Sabzevari, S. M. Alavi-Soltani, S. Minaie, B., “New Method for Estimating the Extent of Curing of Thermosetting Prepregs”, Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 121, pp. 883-891, 2011.

[13]

Wang, Q. Storm, B. K. Houmoller, L. P., “Study of the Isothermal Curing of an Epoxy Prepreg by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy”, Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 87, pp. 2295-2305, 2003.

[14]

Zhang, J. Xu, Y.C. Huang, P., “Effect of Cure Cycle on Curing Process and Hardness for Epoxy Resin”, Express Polymer Letters, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 534-541, 2009.

[15]

Blest, D. C. Duffy, B. R. Mckee, S. Zulkifle, A. K., “Curing Simulation of Thermoset Composites”, Composite: Part A, Vol. 30, pp. 1289-1309, 1999.

[16]

Ghoreishy, M. H. R, Rafei, M. Bakhshandeh, G. R. Nasiri, M., “Computer Simulation of Cure Process of an Axisymmetric Rubber Article Reinforced by Metal Plates Using Extended Abaqus Code”, Iran Journal Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 121-131, 2010. (In Persian)

[17]

Loos, A. C. Springer, G. S., “Curing of Epoxy Matrix Composites, Composite Materials”, Vol. 17, pp. 135-169, 1983.

[18]

Ghoreishy, M. H. R Naderi, G., “The Three Dimensional Simulation and Development of a Computer Software for Rubber Curing Process by Finite Element Method”, Iran Journal Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 21-28, 2004. (In Persian)

[19]

Behzad, T. Sain, M. “Finite Element Modeling of Polymer Curing in Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites”, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 67, pp. 1666-1673, 2007.

[20]

Atarsia, A. Boukhili, R., “Relationship Between Isothermal and Dynamic Cure of Thermosets Via the Isoconversion Represention”, polymer Engineering and Sience, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 607-620, 2000.

[21]

Kamal, M. R. Sourour, S., “Kinetics and thermal characterization of thermoset cure”, polymer Engineering and Sience, Vol. 13, pp. 59-64, 1973.

[22]

Kamal, M. R. Sourour, S., “Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Epoxy Cure: Isothermal Cure Kinetics”, Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 14, pp. 41-59, 1976.

[23]

Lam, P. W. K. Plaumann, H. P. Tran, T., “An Improved Kinetic Model for the Autocatalytic Curing of Styrene-Based Thermoset Resins”, Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 41, pp. 3043-3057, 1990.

[24]

Thecnical data sheet-Epon828, http://www.Momentive.com, available in September 2005.

[25]

Krug, D. J. Asuncion, M. Z. Popova, V. Laine, R. M., “Transparent Fiber Glass Reinforced Composites”, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 77, pp. 95-100, 2013.

[26]

Bitzer, T., “Honeycomb technology—materials, design, manufacturing, applications and testing”, pp. 86, London: Chapman and Hall, 1997.

[27]

Ahn, K. J. Seferis, J. C., “Prepreg Process Analysis”, Polymer Composite, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 349-360, 1993.